Lesson Plan: Overview

The Good, The Bad, The Ugly

Lesson 1: Money, Money, Money, Money...Money
Lesson 2: It's in the Vault

Grade Level: 6th

Academic Standards

Social Studies Standard 5-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the economic boom-an-bust in America in the 1920’s and 1930’s, its resultant political instability, and the subsequent worldwide response.

5-4.2 Summarize the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression, including economic weakness, unemployment, failed banks and businesses, and migration from rural areas.

Math Standard 6-1: The student will understand and utilize the mathematical processes of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation.

6-1.1 Generate and solve complex abstract problems that involve modeling physical, social, and/or mathematical phenomena.

6-1.7 Generalize connections among a variety of representational forms and real-world situations.

Standard 6-2: The student will demonstrate through the mathematical processes an understanding of the concepts of whole-number percentages, integers, and ratio and rate; the addition and subtraction of fractions; accurate, efficient, and generalizable methods of multiplying and dividing fractions and decimals; and the use of exponential notation to represent whole numbers.

6-2.1 Understand whole-number percentages through 100.

6-2.2 Understand integers.

6-2.3 Compare rational numbers and whole-number percentages through 100 by using the symbols <, >, <, > and =.

Standard 6-5: The student will demonstrate through the mathematical processes an understanding of surface area; the perimeter and area of irregular shapes; the relationships among the circumference, diameter, and radius of a circle; the use of proportions to determine unit rates; and the use of scale to determine distance.

6-5.4 Apply strategies and procedures to estimate the perimeters and areas of irregular shapes.

6-5.7 Use a scale to determine distance.

Social Studies Literacy Elements

E. Explain change and continuity over time. Interpret calendars, time lines, maps, charts, tables, graphs, flow charts, diagrams, photographs, paintings, cartoons, architectural drawings, documents, letters, censuses, and other artifacts.

G. Make and record observations about the physical and human characteristics of places.

H. Construct maps, graphs, tables, and diagrams to display social studies information.

Essential Question
How did the Stock Market Crash of 1929 affect the banking system, mankind, and the general economy?

Historical Background Notes

October 29, 1929, “Black Tuesday” is remembered as the most devastating day in American stock market history. Stock prices fell in a frenzy that began the moment the opening bell sounded on Wall Street. By days end, the Dow Jones Industrial Average had dropped more than thirty points. Billions of dollars and the life savings of investors were reported as lost. The nation had not foreseen the coming of the crash as they “roared” through the 1920’s. (US Stock Market Crashes on Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929)

The eight Clarendon County banks closed before 1929. Assets were reported as ranging from $65,000 to $835,000. Manning had three banks, Summerton had two, Paxville, Turbeville, and Pinewood each had one. The closing of these financial institutions meant that Clarendon County had no banks from January 1931 through September 1932. Taylor Stukes and Francis Reedy opened Clarendon Cash Depository in 1932. By 1933, 11,000 of the 25,000 US Banks had failed. The Clarendon Cash Depository became known as the Bank of Clarendon in 1939. (Clark)        

Picture if you would a Thursday morning, October 24, 1929. You are at the New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street. Stocks, shares in a company, are bought and sold. People are making fortunes with these adventures. Brokerage firms allowed customers to buy stocks on margin. They were able to pay a fraction of the value in cash and borrowed the rest from the broker. As long as the stock rises all is safe. If the stock begins to fall, a margin call is made. This means more cash had to be put up for the loan. If the money was not paid the broker would sell the stock at the market price. Prices began to plummet on October 24. Investors were given margin calls the night before and had no choice but to sell their shares to cover their debt. As stockholders sold their shares, stock prices continued to drop. October 29, 1929 is known as Black Tuesday. The bottom fell out of the market.

In 1928 Herbert Hoover, a presidential candidate, won the election in a landslide. “A chicken in every pot and two cars in every garage” was one of the mottos he voiced. It seemed the economy was doing well. People could buy on credit, items such as automobiles, radios, vacuum cleaners, and electric ice boxes. Technological advances and mass production created conveniences and prosperity in the average American home. (US Stock Market Crashes on Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929)

However, there were some problems. Farmers had borrowed money to buy land and tools. Crop production increased and crop prices fell. Because of this, farmers had trouble paying off their debts. The same was occurring in the factories. They were producing more goods than they could sell. Layoffs caused unemployment.

Within weeks of the stock market crash, the United States entered the Great Depression. People owed money and couldn’t pay the loan, so the bank closed. As more people rushed to the banks to withdraw their money the banks were forced to close their doors.

The October 30 edition of The Manning Times featured the Clemson victory over USC 21-14 and “State Fair Draws Crowd as Alcolu Girl Scores Highest, Miss Ethel Lee Gets Trip To Chicago.” It seems Ethel had won a prize for her poultry!  The county was already broke. Money or the lack of it was not of importance enough to publish. (Clark)

Materials

Primary Sources

US. Clarendon Cash Depository. Bank of Clarendon Depositors, 1939.

US. Bank Ledger Entry. Bank of Clarendon, 1945.

Account of the Stock Market Crash of 1929, October, 1929.” Available from the Internet, History Resource Center @Discus. DISCovering U.S. History. Gale Research, 1997. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. Document Number: BT2104210027. Accessed 9/25/2007.

“The White Angel Bread Line.” Photograph. San Francisco, California. Photograph taken by Dorothea Lange, 1933.

Secondary Sources

Clark, Sylvia H., PhD. Shadows of the Past:  An Illustrated History of Clarendon County, SC. Virginia Beach, VA:  The Donning Company Publishers, 2005.

Farshtey, Gregory. American History By Decade The 1920’s. Farmington Hills, MI.: Kidhaven Press, 2004.

Ingram, Scott. The Stock Market Crash of 1929. Milwaukee, WI.:  World Almanac Library, 2005.

Social Studies:  Growth Of A Nation. Glenview, Illinois:  Scott Foresman, 2005.

The U.S. Stock Market Crashes On Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929.” Available from the Internet, History Resource Center @Discus.  DISCovering World History. Online Edition. Gale, 2003. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. Document Number: CD2105240592. Accessed 7/17/2007.

Stock Market Games Bring Math to Life.” Available from the Internet, Education World, Inc.

Stock Market Crash: The History of Financial Train Wrecks.” Available from the Internet, Stock Market Crash Dot Net.

Tools
  • Photos of the history of The Bank of Clarendon on transparencies
  • Power Point of The Stock Market Crash of 1929
  • Power Point of the history of The Bank of Clarendon
  • Paper, including chart tablet paper; pencils, including coloring pencils; dry erase markers, crayons, envelopes, stamps, calculators, notebooks
  • Rulers, compass and protractor
  • Throw away digital cameras (10), digital camera for teacher
  • Computer workstation with internet access, printing capabilities, zip drive or disc
  • LCD projector, white board, screen, overhead
  • Timer
  • Sample of a friendly letter
  • Worksheets to collect stock data and organize notes
  • Written Document Analysis Worksheets
  • Photograph/Artwork Analysis Worksheet
  • Artifact/Object Analysis Worksheet
  • Pre-Post Tests

Lesson Plans

1. This integrated math/history unit will be introduced in the laptop computer lab. The students will be given a pre-test to assess their knowledge of the stock market and the crash of 1929.  The teacher will introduce the stock market crash of 1929, giving a history of the events that led to the crash in 1929. Students will be allowed to use their individual laptop to search the web for stocks to gain an interest in the ones they want to study. Explain that students will be placed in groups to follow five stocks gains and losses. They will keep a record of these stocks in a contest.

2. Students will take a fieldtrip to The Bank of Clarendon. They will be separated in three groups to view the vault, bookkeeping, and the board room. Digital cameras will be available to each group to take pictures of things interesting to them. We can later use these pictures to make a power point of the trip.  Stacey McInnis, Vice President of Human Resources, will teach the students how to read the stock market. The Manning Times will be present to take pictures for the local newspaper.  The students will then walk to The Chamber of Commerce to view the original vault used at the bank. This is a walking fieldtrip from school.

3. The teacher will share transparency pictures of The Bank of Clarendon and its history as it relates to Manning, South Carolina. The analysis worksheets will be used in these lessons.

4. The students will be placed in small groups, given five stocks to research and sent to computer workstations to read their stocks for the day. The groups will be given a daily opportunity to perform this task. Explain that this part of the project will be used as a contest to find the group that makes the most money with their stocks. The contest will last for one month. The winning group will be presented with a $50.00 savings bonds from The Bank of Clarendon.

5. The teacher will present a power point of the Stock Market Crash of 1929. This will be a time to review what the stock market is, how people use the stock market to make money, and how the depression led to its crash in 1929. History of the United States will be taught through this. Students will take notes to help them remember important facts. A printed set of questions will be used to study for testing.

6. Use the transparencies of the original vault to discuss the dimensions of the vault used at that time. Students will design a vault with rulers. Encourage creative thinking. Use a rubric (see Student Assessment section below) to follow the project guidelines. Explain the rubric before starting the project. Have students share their drawings. Display them in the room.

7. Share a transparency with the students on the original ledger entry of October 2, 1945. Study the columns to review the decimals used in money, and addition and subtraction of deposits, checks written, and balances. Using calculators, check the entries for errors.

8. Have students write thank you letters to The Bank of Clarendon for the fieldtrip. Using the ELA teacher, edit the letters and recopy them. Collect the letters to send to the bank.

9. Have students work together to create a power point of The Bank of Clarendon. Show the finished product to the class and send it along with the thank you letters.

10. Worksheets and activities on problem solving, integers, percentages, estimating perimeter and area, scale drawing for distance, and working with decimals will be placed in individual folders to be completed by students in collaborative teams. Extra credit in math will be given as activities are completed. Use data to tutor students who need more practice with skills. Utilize peer teachers for this as well.

11. Assess knowledge learned of The Stock Market Crash of 1929 with a post-test created by the teacher.

12. Compare and contrast The Stock Market Crash of 1929 with the present-day Stock Exchange.

Lesson 1

1. Complete a K-W-L Chart with students to get an understanding of where the students are at with the stock market crash of 1929. Assess with a teacher checklist (see Student Assessment section below).

2. Orally read, to share background information on the stock market crash, the books American History By Decade- The 1920’s and Landmark Events in American History:  The Stock Market Crash of 1929. Openly discuss the content.

3. Take the students on a walking fieldtrip to The Bank of Clarendon. They will be separated in three groups to view the vault, bookkeeping, and board room. Digital cameras will be available to each group to take pictures of things interesting to them. They can later use these photos to make a power point. Stacey McInnis, Vice President of Human Resources, will teach the students how to read the stock market. The Manning Times will be invited to take pictures for the local newspaper. The students will then walk to the Chamber of Commerce to view the original vault used at the first bank.

4. Review the format for friendly letter writing. Provide a sample of a friendly letter. Have students write thank you letters to The Bank of Clarendon for the fieldtrip. Use the ELA team teacher to edit the letters and have them write their final draft. Collect the letters and send them by mail to the bank. Assess with a rubric (see Student Assessment section below).

5. View a transparency of the vault to discuss the dimensions of the vault used at the time. Compare and contrast the vault used today that they walked through and the original one. Students will design a vault with a ruler, compass, and a protractor. Encourage creative thinking. Use a rubric (see Student Assessment section below) to assess student work. Explain the rubric with the students. Students will share their project and display them in the room.

Lesson 2

1. The teacher will present a power point of the Stock Market Crash of 1929. This will be a time to review what the stock market is, how people use the stock market to make money, and how the depression led to its crash in 1929. Chorally read the slides. Assess with a checklist.

2. Put the students in groups of five. Have the groups write what they know about the stock market on chart paper with a marker. Time the group for 2 minutes. When the timer rings switch paper with another group. Again, write what you know that the group before you didn’t know. Time allowed is 2 minutes. This continues until all the groups have had the chance to write on each sheet of paper. Present the information on the chart tablet papers and post in the room. Assess with a checklist.

3. Present overhead transparencies of the Bank of Clarendon original vault. Discuss the comparison and contrast of the vault used today. Review perimeter and area and how we find these measurements. Discuss diameter, circumference, and radius of the original vault. Have students design their own vault, either of the past, present, or the future. They will complete this for homework. Collect homework the following week and grade with a teacher designed rubric (see Student Assessment section below).

4. Summarize today’s lesson with student-made power points.

Teacher Reflections

The summer institute course Modern America and the World Wars, 1914 to 1945, has catapulted my 2007-2008 teaching year into an unbelievably exciting environment in which to teach and learn. My students and I have been enjoyed our unit on The Stock Market Crash of 1929. We have incorporated math skills that are usually impossible for my sixth graders to master through the unit and I have found much success with my assessments. I love the integrated teaching approach. I have always found it to be the best way to get concepts across to my students. Integrating math with social studies is sometimes difficult but the stock market is limitless with what students can learn. I look forward to going to school daily just to see what we learn. Teaching and learning is alive in my classroom!

The use of primary sources attracts student interest. They love to look at the photographs donated by the Bank of Clarendon. They loved the fieldtrip to the bank. They held large sums of money, saw all the machines the bank uses in various work stations, they walked through the bank vault, opened a security deposit box, and even touched the original bank vault that is on display at the Chamber of Commerce. When we read original letters written by the bank, they enthusiastically wrote thank you letters back. That’s the word… enthusiasm…Teaching with hands-on experiences for disadvantaged students is a marvelous way of building background knowledge brain food for the developing minds I teach. Students don’t normally get too interested in the past. They are all about the present, the future. When they held original documents things became real for them. I am challenged daily to find these primary sources now. They ask for them. How neat is that!

The morning lectures with Kevin Witherspoon were inspirational to me. I love history now that I am an adult. Kevin has a true gift with teaching. His varied approaches made me strive to be a better teacher this year. I want to make a difference with my students. He showed me how. I loved the guest speakers that came dressed in costume to teach the lesson. Making history come alive is the goal we must strive for. He was organized, knowledgeable about the content, confident about his teaching, and patient when we needed him to explain something further.

The master teacher sessions were useful in explaining the differences between primary and secondary resources. I was glad to be informed about primary resources and their value to the teaching lesson. I also enjoy the worksheets provided by the Allyson Goff and Kim Harrelson. Another role they facilitated for me personally was just taking the time to sit and listen and share their experiences with me. I utilized these women a great deal. They were my security blankets.

I enjoyed the cultural institutions. I love fieldtrips. However, I did not use any of them in my lesson plans. I chose to create one of my own to visit with my students. We visited the Bank of Clarendon and the Chamber of Commerce.  I am so glad we took the trips. It taught me about the area in which we live.

My student’s work could easily be made into a portfolio to indicate mastery of skills taught and assessed. We have stock market posters hanging from the ceiling, charts in the hall displaying our gains and loses, and  photos of our fieldtrip to the bank on the bulletin board to name a few. Students ask every day if they can do research on their stock. Students beg every day to work on their power points. One of the neat things that came out of all this is that my students are working in groups without complaint. They have formed friendships that have managed to stand the test of time.

I strongly recommend this course to anyone that teaches in South Carolina. It is so important to know where you have come from. It sets the course for where you are going in history. We can lecture and discuss history and nine times out of ten the students will absorb about 10% of its meaning. They usually do not understand why we are doing this activity. Children want to know what is going on now, due to their egotistic nature. This summer institute gave me the tools to presenting history in another approach. The use of primary sources is the ticket to success! I give the course five stars. Thank you for allowing me to participate. I am a math and science teacher who hesitated to sign up. I am so glad I did. It has made me a stronger, more effective teacher.

Student Assessment

Money, Money, Money, Money...Money Rubric

It's in the Vault Rubric

It's in the Vault Rubric 2

Examples of Students Work

No examples available for this lesson plan.

Credit

Margaret Player
Manning Elementary School
Manning, South Carolina