Lesson Plan: Overview

Social Effects of WWII on SC (Pt. 3)

Grade Level: 5th

Academic Standards

Standard 5-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the economic boom-and-bust in America in the 1920’s and 1930’s, its resultant political instability, and the subsequent worldwide response.

 
Indicator 5-4-5:Summarize the political and social impact of World War II, including changes in women’s roles, in attitudes toward Japanese Americans, and in nation-state boundaries and governments.
 
Indicator 5-4-6:Summarize key developments in technology aviation, weaponry, and communication and explain their effect on World War II and the economy of the United States.
 
Social Studies Literacy Elements

A. Distinguish between past, present and future time.

G. Make and record observations about the physical and human characteristics of places.

K. Use text, photographs, and documents to observe and interpret social studies trends and relationships.

Essential Questions:

“What were the advertisements doing to promote a uniting feeling in the U.S. during and after WWII?”

“What kinds of emotions were created through the posters developed for advertisement during World War Two?”

 

Historical Background Notes

Advertising played a major role on the home front in World War Two.  Newspapers and advertisements companies utilized the emotions of the public to involve them in the war effort.  The Camden Chronicle displayed many ads that encouraged families to plant victory gardens, older veterans to serve their country on the railway system, ration their shoes with the local department store, and buy Pepsi to support the war.

A huge door was swung open in the workforce during World War II.  Gender was no longer an issue, it was a need.  With few men left behind in the states, women were needed in the war production work.  “The number of women in the work force increased by nearly 60 percent during the war (Brinkley 2005.)”  Although women were still categorized by race and at times criticized by their male counterparts and bosses, they were an integral cog in the working machine.  They began working more heavy duty jobs and were trusted with weapons of war.  “A woman war worker checks over 1,000-pound bomb cases before they are filled with deadly charges of explosives and shipped off to Allied bases and battlefronts all over the world.” (Brinkley 2005) A major motivator for women in the workforce was advertising.  Many women were recruited into the workforce through advertisements.

Advertisements sprouted up all over the nation encouraging women into the workforce.  These were perhaps the greatest motivators for women during this fearful and stressful time. “Rosie the Riveter” became a well known image in the minds of Americans during the war.  She was a strong woman showing her muscles while wearing a factory uniform.  Advertisements began showing images of real life “Rosie the Riveters” working in wartime plants detailing some of their occupations, tools, and protective clothing.  Jobs that were once considered inappropriate for women were now open for employment. 

Advertisements also encouraged women in college to come work for the war.  Since many men left their positions in offices and laboratories to fight in the war, women were needed to fill the positions.  Women interested in sciences, accounting, and imaging were recruited by the Women’s Army Corps.  They were recruited by the government for clerical work.  Ads portrayed women mixing unknown chemicals and looking very intelligent and studious (ARC Identifier: 515996.) 

More and more married women entered into the workforce in the early 1940’s. Many advertisements were targeted towards married women. Ads depicted women looking at letters or crying into tissues over their soldier husbands.  The ads suggested that instead of staying home and pining for reports of their men in the war, women could join the workforce and being working for their men.  This became a very controversial issue as men returned home from war. 

Advertisements were able to grab attention through many formats.  They motivated women using power and strength through “Rosie the Riveter.”  College women were targeted through enticing posters and studious looking women.  Married women were wooed through emotions and the desire to fill their time and work for their men.  Ads proved to be a very successful and moving technique to draw women into the workforce. 

There is no doubt that advertisements grabbed the public by their heartstrings.  Ads aimed to attract women to the military and the workforce.   The Camden Chronicle “showed a spirit of enterprise” with its advertisements (Kennedy 1994.)  They encouraged the whole family to get involved as well as some older men who stayed behind in the United States.   Advertisements definitely made the United States come together to fight the war and gave those who were not able to fight for our country a way to be a part of the war effort.

Materials

1. Photocopies and SMARTboard pictures of advertisements
2. Multiple computer workstations with Internet access and printing capabilities
3.Graphic organizer for interpreting newspaper ads
4. Pencils, pens and papers
 
Primary Sources
“For Your Victory Garden.” The Camden Chronicle, 12 February 1943.  Newspaper on Microfilm.  Published Materials Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
“Hi-Ya, Soldier.”  The Camden Chronicle, 16 April 1943.  Newspaper on Microfilm.  Published Materials Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
“Now That Shoes Are Rationed.” The Camden Chronicle, 12 February 1943.  Newspaper on Microfilm.  Published Materials Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
“Tops—With the Night-Watch.”  The Camden Chronicle, 2 July 1943.  Newspaper on Microfilm.  Published Materials Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
 
Secondary Sources

South Carolinians in World War II

“Tops—With the Night-Watch.”  The Camden Chronicle, 2 July 1943.  Newspaper on Microfilm.  Published Materials Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation Volume II:1865 New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 2005.
“For Your Victory Garden.” The Camden Chronicle, 12 February 1943.  Newspaper on Microfilm.  Published Materials Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
“Hi-Ya, Soldier.”  The Camden Chronicle, 16 April 1943.  Newspaper on Microfilm.  Published Materials Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
Kennedy, Robert & Kirkland, Thomas. Historic Camden. Columbia, South Carolina: R. L. Bryan Company, 1994.
“Now That Shoes Are Rationed.” The Camden Chronicle, 12 February 1943.  Newspaper on Microfilm.  Published Materials Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
“Tops—With the Night-Watch.”  The Camden Chronicle, 2 July 1943.  Newspaper on Microfilm.  Published Materials Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

Lesson Plans

1.Teacher will introduce a poster of an advertisement on SMARTboard.
2.The class will complete a ‘Poster Analysis Worksheet’ together.
3.Students will complete another analysis worksheet on a different poster.
4.Each group will present their findings to the class.

Teacher Reflections

When I was first recruited to take the TAHSC class in the summer of 2006, I was very apprehensive.  After all, I had not yet started my first year of teaching and was very self-conscious about my level of content knowledge in history.  However, I was pleasantly surprised at the results the class had on my teaching.  I came into my first year of teaching with confidence in my content knowledge, ideas for lesson plans, and a plethora of primary sources to utilize in my classroom.

I do not think we could have had a better master scholar.  Paul Anderson’s teaching style was a great fit for me.  Coming into this class with very little content knowledge, I was worried I would not understand the information or that the master scholar would move to quickly.  Paul went at an excellent pace and was very willing and able to answer any questions I had.  His enthusiasm for history made me more excited and this carried over into my teaching.  This coupled with the text The Unfinished Nation, really helped me gain confidence in my content knowledge (Brinkley 2005.) I find myself getting more and more excited about history the further we get along.  My students see the enthusiasm I have, and in turn, become more enthusiastic about the content.

The master teacher was also a huge help to me.  Mr. Hicks also seemed passionate and enthusiastic about teaching history.  The analysis worksheets he provided really helped me more than my students.  I was able to breakdown exactly what I wanted my students to identify through different types of sources.  I loved that he used popular music (Alan Jackson and Garth Brooks) to define emotions of certain events (September 11.)  In addition, I loved the analysis of political cartoons.  I never thought my fifth grade students would be able to thoughtfully and skillfully analyze political cartoons. I have found that not only can my students make these analyses but also enjoy the cartoons.  I have been able to integrate the cartoons in my language arts lessons as well as my social studies lessons.  I have my students analyze the language used in the cartoons as well as locate parts of speech and grammar errors.  (They really enjoy searching the cartoons for grammatical errors.) 

I was very apprehensive about the cultural institutions.  I have never been much of a researcher and could not see how sitting in a stuffy old building could help improve my teaching.  I did not see the importance of using primary sources in my classroom.  I assumed a website, video, or picture would be plenty.  However, I was amazed to find out how much more interesting a primary source can make a lesson.  I was even more amazed to see how many primary sources there were lying around in the cultural institutions as well as there many connections to South Carolina.  My attitude towards history might have been a little different as a young student if I had taken a trip to the South Carolina Railroad Museum or Kensington Mansion.

I thoroughly enjoyed being at each institution and soaking up the history.  I have begun integrating primary sources into my classroom and have seen a large peak in students’ interest when I can connect some global concept to South Carolina.  My original plans for my two lessons were to analyze the social aspects of Reconstruction on African Americans in South Carolina utilizing the freedmen’s contract and Jacob Stroyer’s book. 

My students and I covered the content associated with Reconstruction and I really tried to make it real to them.  We discussed the Freedmen’s Bureau and I told them that they were active in South Carolina.  I had actually located a diary at South Caroliniana Library where I read a few passages about a white teacher traveling to North and South Carolina to teach the African-American students.  We then moved onto the freedmen’s contract and I pulled out the contract to show the students.  They loved it!  They were intrigued and spent a good bit of time trying to decipher the writing.  It was incredible for them to see South Carolina written on the clearly aged document from so long ago. 

My plan was for us to make up a contract similar to the original document.However, the plan did not go as well as I had planned.  I did not realize the amount of time and planning it would take to utilize good primary sources.  I did not plan effectively and therefore, my lesson was not a success. 

I worked with my teammate, Shannon Holland, and we came up with a unit for World War II.  It would be perfect timing, as we planned to teach our lessons right before the mid-year retreat.  However, due to opening a brand new school and my being a first year teacher, we got behind in our curriculum.  We will be starting World War II in a few weeks.  My plans for my lessons are to have my students analyze advertisements from World War II.  The Camden Chronicle provided advertisements asking South Carolinians to get involved in the war effort by rationing shoes (“Now That Shoes Are Rationed.” The Camden Chronicle, 12 February 1943), planting victory gardens (“For Your Victory Garden.” 12 February 1943), etc.  Students will analyze these as well as articles drawing women into the military.

My second lesson will involve students being able to interview veterans who fought in World War II and see how prepared South Carolina was during and after the war.  I interviewed both of my grandparents who were enlisted in the United States Marine Corps during WWII and were both from South Carolina.  My grandmother told of her training and clerical desk job (Gambrell, Margaret 2007.)  My grandfather remembered more vivid details of what South Carolina was like during WWII.  He told me how unprepared he was when he left for the Pacific and how the soldiers at Camp Jackson used broomsticks and cardboard to emulate machine guns during training (Gambrell, Charles 2007.)  The students will be able to ask questions from the people who have lived in and get a real feel for what South Carolina was like at this time.

Although I feel one hundred times better about my content knowledge, I feel that I could strive to work closer with the cultural institutions and utilize more primary sources.  I use them in my classroom, but I feel that I could have my students become more acquainted with them.  I want them to be able to make more connections to South Carolina and history in general through these documents.  I plan to have field studies to the State Museum and perhaps even Kensington Mansion next year to give the students a better connection to the content.  I think that if I work harder to familiarize myself with these institutions and become more comfortable with primary sources, I will be able to have a greater success when using them with my students.  I plan to spend my summer with my head in those dusty old buildings digging up new treasures for years to come!

Student Assessments

Teacher used attached rubric.

Examples of Students Work

No examples available for this lesson plan.

Credit

Kelly Gambrell
Sandlapper Elementary