Lesson Plan: Overview

Civil Rights through Photographs

Lesson 1: Civil Rights through Photographs (Part 1)
Lesson 2: Civil Rights through Photographs (Part 2)

Grade Level: 5th & 8th

Summerton Graded

Academic Standards

Standard 5-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of Reconstruction and its impact on race relations in the United States.
Indicator 5-1.3 Explain the effects of Reconstruction on African Americans, including their new rights and restrictions, their motivations to relocate to the North and the West, and the actions of the Freedmen's Bureau.
Indicator 5-1.4 Compare the economic and social effects of Reconstruction on different populations, including the move from farms to factories and the change from the plantation system to sharecropping.
Standard 8-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the impact of Reconstruction on the people and government of South Carolina.
Indicator 8-4.1 Explain the purposes of Reconstruction with attention to the economic, social, political, and geographic problems facing the South, including reconstruction of towns, factories, farms, and transportation systems; the effects of emancipation; racial tension; tension between social classes; and disagreement over voting rights.
Indicator 8-4.2 Summarize Reconstruction in South Carolina and its effects on daily life in South Carolina, including the experiences of plantation owners, small farmers, freedmen, women, and northern immigrants.
Indicator 8-4.4 Explain how events during Reconstruction improved opportunities for African Americans but created a backlash that, by the end of Reconstruction, negated the gains African Americans had made, including the philanthropy of northern aid societies, the assistance provided by the federal government such as the Freedmen's Bureau, and their advancement in politics and education.
Standard 8-5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of major social, political, and economic developments that took place in the United States during the second half of the nineteenth century.
Indicator 8-5.1 Summarize the political, economic, and social conditions in South Carolina following the end of Reconstruction, including the leadership of Wade Hampton and the so-called Bourbons or Redeemers, agricultural depression and struggling industrial development, the impact of temperance and suffrage movements, the development of the 1895 constitution, and the evolution of race relations and Jim Crow laws.
Standard 8-6: The student will demonstrate an understanding of South Carolina's development during the early twentieth century.
Indicator 8-6.4 Explain the causes and the effects of changes in South Carolina culture during the 1920s, including Prohibition, the boll weevil, the rise of mass media, increases in tourism and recreation, the revival of the Ku Klux Klan, and the Southern Literacy Renaissance.
Standard 8-7: The student will demonstrate an understanding of South Carolina's economic revitalization during World War II and the latter twentieth century.
Indicator 8-7.4 Explain the factors that influenced the economic opportunities of African American South Carolinians during the latter twentieth century, including racial discrimination, the Briggs v. Elliott case, the integration of public facilities and the civil rights movement, agricultural decline, and statewide educational improvement.
 
Social Studies Literacy Elements

A. Distinguish between past, present, and the future time.

E. Explain change and continuity over time.
K. Use texts, photographs, and documents to observe and interpret social studies trends and relationships.
L. Interpret calendars, time lines, maps, charts, tables, graphs, flow charts, diagrams, photographs, cartoons, architectural drawings, and other artifacts.
O. Consider multiple perspectives of documents and stories.
S. Interpret and synthesize information obtained from a variety of sources--graphs, charts, tables, diagrams, photographs, documents, and interviews.
V. Use a variety of media to develop and organize integrated summaries of social studies information.
 
Essential Questions

Why did racial tensions continue after laws were put in place to try to create equal treatment?  How did the South get around the Constitution? How did the freedmen and former plantation owners co-exist?

 

What caused the Civil Rights movements? How did the events of the Civil Rights Movement impact the American South?

Historical Background Notes

Lesson 1

With the end of the Civil War came the end of slavery.  In a just society slaves would have been freed and everyone would get along great. In a more perfect world, freed slaves would have lived in harmony with former slaveholders.   Unfortunately, life is not that easy.  One of the biggest problems is that slaves had always been thought of as property, as one might think of a piece of furniture.  How were people supposed to treat them as humans when hundreds of years had taught them that they were less?  Also, there were all of these freed slaves with no place to go and no money.

After Reconstruction was over, Southern states figured out how to create another form of slavery known as the black codes.  Black Codes are most commonly associated with the laws adopted in the southern states after the War to keep former slaves in what the white southerners thought was their place. After the abolition of slavery by the Thirteenth Amendment many ex-slave states adopted their own versions of the Black Code systems. During the first year of the presidential Reconstruction, every southern state passed new Black Codes that restricted the freed slaves. They gave them only a limited set of second-class civil rights, and no voting rights.  Southern plantation owners feared that they would lose their land to African Americans and that Africans Americans   would not do their work as they had done before; many Southern whites feared that blacks would consider themselves their equals.

The Black Codes were created by states to keep the former slaves under their grasp.  The codes varied from state to state.  Under the codes some freedmen did get a few rights that they did not have before like being able to sue in court, own property, and marry.  (Wiegand 185) But, that was the only nice part.  When suing or marrying it had to be to or against people of their own color.  The Codes were created to keep freedman in a slavery system like state.  They were not allowed to own weapons, be out passed a certain time, could only farm or work in a manual labor situation, and traveling was not an option.  One had to sign contracts for work known as the Freedman’s Contract, which was for a years worth of work.  If you broke the codes you were fined and sent to jail.  While in jail you had to pay for your time in jail.  If you could not pay you were sent to a work camp to pay off your debt. 

Governor Benjamin Perry commissioned Armistead Burr and David Wardlaw to draw up regulations to handle the former slave problem.  They with the help of Edmund Rhett created South Carolina’s Black codes, which they presented to the legislature in October of 1865 and were passed in December.  South Carolina’s Black Codes had three main areas, which were: new rights of the freed, new restrictions for the freed, and labor issues. (Edgar 2006, 74) They recognized the slaves as freed and defined black (7/8 black). (Edgar 1998, 383) Also, interracial marriages were illegal.  African Americans were not allowed to own property in this state, enter into a contract, sue, or attend court.  Our laws were much harsher than other states.  Blacks could not sale goods unless they had an employer or the magistrates’ permission.  Their workday was from sunrise to sunset.  (Edgar 2006, 74)  The terms master and servant were still used in the codes in South Carolina.  In 1866 excluding references to race so that they could stay in place changed the Codes. (Edgar 1998, 384)

Lesson 2

After the Civil War the South instituted sharecropping.  It would take close to 100 years afterwards for African Americans to get out of the system.  Also, for them to try to work toward equality.  At the same time the Jim Crow Laws were rules to keep African Americans under a sort of white man’s control; specifically in the south.

During the year 1833, the Supreme Court ruled that the government had no right to interfere with private enterprises.  Plessy v. Ferguson stated that the state had the right to legally segregate public areas such as schools and busses. (Brinkley, 248 and 249) In South Carolina in 1899 the definition of black changed form 7/8ths to 1/8th or more. (Edgar 1998, 448)  In 1899 the Supreme Court gave states permission to build schools for whites only.  Jim Crow laws were created in Southern states to force segregation.  (Brinkley, 249)

"Jim Crow" was a familiar minstrel character of the day from the song and dance Jump Jim Crow.  Jim Crow, a reference to the character Jump Jim Crow (popular in antebellum minstrel entertainment) introduced in 1832 through a song written and sung by "Daddy" Dan Rice. Jim Crow was a racist stage depiction of a poor and uneducated rural black man.

African Americans were prohibited from serving whites in varies capacities, from that of barber to even nurse.  (Wiegand, 202) African Americans were not allowed to sit in the same area as whites, not allowed to use some parks, and kept out of theaters used by whites. (Brinkley, 249)  The laws also kept blacks from voting by creating literacy tests, poll taxes, and the grandfather clause (if you grandfather, great grandfather, etc. couldn’t vote then you can’t either). (Brinkley, 249)  This form of segregation and sharecropping would continue until the mid 1900’s.

In South Carolina what was not segregated by law was by understanding.  Everywhere you look there was “White only” or “colored only” signs.  Life for African Americans became difficult; you had to make sure you understood what you could and couldn’t do for fear of your life.  Areas like Bamberg limited shopping for African Americans to one day a week, Charleston did not allow African Americans on the Battery or for the nanny’s to sit on benches in Colonial Lake Park.  Manners were necessary not just polite.  Whites were to be addressed as Massa, Master, Miss, or Boss.  Using Mr. or Mrs. was rude. (Edgar 1998, 445)

In the 1950’s African Americans finally began a movement to gain more civil rights.  In 1954, the decision in the case of Brown v. Board of Education asserted that segregation in public schools was illegal.  (Brinkley, 475)  The decision stated that schools had to be desegregated, but gave no timetable on when it was to be done.  After the battle for integrated schools was launched, others followed suite.  Rosa Parks refused to sit at the back of the bus on December 1, 1955.  It wasn’t that she did it out of spite just to protest, but that she was tired and there was no point in having to walk to the back when she could sit in a seat at the front.  Because of her refusal she was arrested.  Her arrest started the boycott of the bus system.  (Brinkley, 475) The Montgomery bus protest set off many more protests from silent ones in the park to sitting at lunch counters in many cities. During the 1960s a wave of protests started from sit-ins at the lunch counters to freedom riders, which rode across the south testing segregation laws.

Materials

  Primary Sources
  Lesson 1
 

Photos of Drayton Hall and surrounding areas

   
  Petition of William Bass, a free person of color, praying to become a slave, 14 December 1859. South Carolina Historical Society, Charleston, SC.
   
 

Singleton Family Papers, Freedmen's Contract, January 1867. Manuscripts Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

   
  Lesson 2
  "Book a Window Into Black History." The Post and Courier (Charleston, South Carolina). 12 November 2001: sec. G, p. 1-x.
   
 

"Liberty Hill Colored, Clarendon County." Insurance Photographs of Schools in South Carolina, 1935-1950. S112113. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia, South Carolina

   
  Petition of Harry Briggs, et al., to the Board of Trustee for School District No. 22. 11 November 1949. Clarendon County Board of Education, L14167. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia, South Carolina.
   
  "Summerton Graded, Clarendon County." Photograph. Insurance Photographs of Schools in South Carolina, 1935-1950, S112113. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia, South Carolina.
   
  Secondary Sources
  Lesson 1
 

Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation: A Brief, Interactive History of the American People. Vol. 2, From 1865. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2005.

   
 

Edgar, Walter. South Carolina: A History. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1998.

   
 

Edgar, Walter, Ed. The South Carolina Encyclopedia. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2006.

   
  Galbraith, Letitia. “After the War.” Interiors. Winter 1984.
   
  Wiegand, Steve. U.S. History for Dummies. New York: IDG Books, 2001.
   
  “David Hunter and the Department of the South.” Available from The Lincoln Institute, Mr. Lincoln and Freedom. Internet, The Lincoln Institute. Accessed 7 February 2007.
   
  “Earning a Living as a Free Black in Charleston, South Carolina.” SCIWAY: The South Carolina Information Highway. Accessed online 7 February 2007.
   
  Lesson 2
 

Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation: A Brief, Interactive History of the American People. Vol. 2, From 1865. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2005.

   
 

Edgar, Walter. South Carolina: A History. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1998.

   
  Wiengand, Steve. U.S. History for Dummies. New York: IDG Books, 2001.
   
 

Williams, Cecil J. Freedom & Justice: Four Decades of the Civil Rights Struggle As Seen by a Black Photographer of the Deep South. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1995. The Freedom & Justice Image Collection.

   
  “Jim Crow: the System of Segregation in the South.” Internet, North by South, National Endowment for the Humanities seminar.
   
  “Penn Normal, Industrial and Agricultural School.” Available from The North by South webpage. Internet, North by South, National Endowment for the Humanities seminar.  Accessed 7 February 2007.
   
  Alabama Literacy Test.”  Available from Civil Rights Movement Veterans. Internet, Civil Rights Movement Veterans. Accessed 7 February 2007.
   
  Materials Needed
  TV
   
  Avery Key
   
 

Handouts of Powerpoint

Lesson 1

Lesson 2

   
  Handouts of Literacy Test

Lesson Plans

Lesson 1
(Taught as a mini lesson in 30 minutes but the lesson was originally constructed to be taught in 60 minutes )
 
1.Introduce Slavery, its end, and Reconstruction period.
 
2.Give out the handout of the pictures and get the students to look at the pictures and right down what they think the picture is about.
 

3. View Powerpoint presentation and discuss the photos.

Photos:

-Drayton Hall today riverfront

-Drayton Hall today road front

-Drayton Hall 1866 riverfront

-Drayton Hall 1866 road front

-Drayton Hall Slave task list (available at Drayton Hall, African Connection area)

-Singleton Family Papers, Freedmen's Contract, January 1867.

-South Carolina Black Codes

-Slaves SC Plantation
(The Lincoln Institute, Mr. Lincoln and Freedom)

-Slaves working on Drayton Hall

-Phosphate mine at Drayton Hall

-Phosphate train at Drayton Hall

-Phosphate mine using a steam powered drill at Drayton Hall

-Phosphate rock

-Marker for train track at Drayton Hall

-Pipes you can look through to focus your view on where the train tracks ran and the phosphate mines were

-Free tag (South Carolina Information Highway)

-Drawing of Bowing family cabin at Drayton Hall

-Petition of William Bass asking to become a slave again in 1859. (SCHS)

-Map of African Americans in 1890 in SC (Edgar)

-Map of African Americans in 1920 in SC (Edgar)

-Map of African Americans in 1950 in SC (Edgar)

 
4. Write down what they liked or disliked about the presentation, what they would have liked to have more of, and what they have learned.
 
Lesson 2
(Taught as a mini lesson in 30 minutes but the lesson was originally constructed to be taught in 60 minutes)
 
1.Discuss how Freedmen would eventually overcome the Black Codes but that it led into the Jim Crow Laws which again restricted their freedoms until they finally began to fight.
 
2.Use the power point to help explain Jim Crow and segregation of schools and other areas of life
 

3.Pictures from Powerpoint:

-African American farm house, Beaufort County (Edgar 1998, 449)

-Jim Crow Image

-Some Jim Crow Laws in South Carolina

-Some more Jim Crow Laws in South Carolina

-African American children walking to school.

-African American school, Beaufort County (Avery Normal Institute)

-African American school, Charleston County, 1866 (Edgar 1998, 392)

-Liberty Hill School, 1948-1951

-Summerton School, 1948-1951

-Father walking daughters to school, Charleston County, 1963 (Post and Courier)

-Separate Water Fountains

-“Jim Crow: the System of Segregation in the South.”

-Community Service Flag Calendar (Edgar 1998, 478)

-Gas station Orangeburg County (Cecil Williams)

-Man Protesting Orangeburg County (Cecil Williams)

-Peaceful protest, Orangeburg County Square (Cecil Williams)

-Part of the Constitution (I typed up)

-Alabama Literacy Test

3. Have students take the literacy test.

Teacher Reflections

Lesson 1

   This lesson will challenge students to think of history in a different way.  Not only because it is a different teaching style but because of the content.  This lessons attempts to make students think about how we treat each other and how that has evolved over history.  By using the images from Drayton Hall; the students will be able to not only learn about what happened after the Civil War in South Carolina but they will be able to see it as well.  The students are given a handout with the images on them.  They are to look at each and write down what they think the pictures are about.  Then a short review is given by asking the students what happened after the Civil War.  While showing the presentation the students are asked what they think the images is, then the correct answer is explained, and the students are led in a discussion on why it is important and how things have changed over time.

Lesson 2

The purpose of this lesson is to teach students about equality and that there still needs to be changes made in this country.  The focus is on the Civil Rights Movement and Jim Crow Laws.   Images of the Civil Rights Movement is what brought it to the attention of this country during the 60’s and its effect is still felt today.  Through images students can see the pain that the African Americans went through to get to this point.  They are to think about them and write down what they think they are and then a discussion is held on what the images are and why they are important.  Some of the images are on schools for African Americans and a discussion is held on how different the schools for African Americans and white children were.  Then a literacy test is given to drive in the point that an education is important to function in society.

Student Assessments

Lesson 1

1. Pre-test (what they think the photos are)

2. Discussion of photographs

Lesson 2

1. Discussion of the Powerpoint and Jim Crow.

2. Students answers on the Literacy test. (Graded for completion and attempt, not accuracy)

Credit

Krystal Bozard
Lowcountry Institute